Enfield Historic District

View of the Old Town Hall, view northwest; Source- NRIS 79002664
Historic/Common Name:
Enfield National Register Historic District
Town:
Enfield »
Year of Establishment:
1971
Notes on Establishment:
The Historic District Commission was established by ordinance adopted by the Enfield Town Council on July 17, 1972 and revised on June 6, 1983 (Section 4B-3 through 4B-14 of the Town Code).
Historic Designation:
LHD, NRHD, SR
District Authority:
Historic District Commission
Nature of Authority:
Regulatory
District Character:
Town Center
Eligible for Historic Home tax credits:
Yes
General description:

An 18th century town hall and a 19th century church form the center of interest of the Enfield Historic District. They are located across from one another north of the old parade ground on Enfield Street, which runs north and south on a ridge east of the Connecticut River, in the north central Connecticut town of Enfield. The street has always been a prime residential area and now is lined with good examples of domestic architecture in various styles from the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries. With the exception of four service establishments, all occupying buildings of the same scale and mass as neighboring houses, there is no commerce or industry in the district. The center of interest of the district, south of the geographic center, is the intersection where South Road approaches from the east and dead ends into Enfield Street. The church is on the northeast corner of this intersection with an imposing monument in front of it. The town hall is across Enfield Street from the church, and the district's grandest house is across South Road. [NR]

Significance of the district:

Enfield Street has been a main thoroughfare in the town of Enfield since the 1680s. An 18th century meeting house turned town hall and a 19th century church are located here. Many fine residences spanning a period of 300 years have been built along the street, displaying a variety of architectural styles, and summarizing in their history the town's development. In terms of the established criteria for evaluation for the National Register, the district has "the quality of significance in American history (and) architecture" because it possesses "integrity of location, design, setting, materials, workmanship, feeling, and association. " Moreover, the district is "associated with the lives of persons significant in (the local) past, " and "represent(s) a significant and distinguishable entity whose components may lack individual distinction."The "distinguishable entity" that is the district has greater significance than its buildings considered individually. While several of the buildings do have outstanding merit, it is their collective presence that gives significance to the district. The church, town hall, and Thompson mansion are outstanding architecture and are important in the history of Enfield. But it is the range of more than 100 houses up and down the street that demonstrates the development of domestic building and living arrangements in New England over a period of three centuries. A Greek Revival house with an added two-car garage is typical of Enfield. [NR]

District Boundary:

The boundaries of the proposed historic district on Enfield Street are as follows: Bounded on the north by Route 190 and extending south on Enfield Street on a little more than two miles to the approximate intersections of Oliver Road on the east and Old King Street on the west; but including house number 1489, owned by Thomas R. Smyth on the east; and house number 1503, owned by Herbert M. Carson on the west; these houses being of historic and architectural significance. All homes, buildings and real property within the north to south boundary of such district aforementioned and bordering upon Enfield Street are included within the boundaries of the district. The boundary extends east from the state highway markers on the east side of Enfield Street to the rear property line of such homes, buildings or real property bordering upon Enfield Street but in no event more than 250 feet east from such state highway markers. The boundary extends west from the state highway markers on the west side of Enfield Street to the rear property line of such homes, buildings or real property bordering upon Enfield Street, but in no event more than 250 feet west from such state highway markers. The following exceptions are made: The residence of Thomas Smyth at 1489 Enfield Street, 300 feet depth; the Orrin Thompson house only, in the Felician Sisters complex, 525 feet depth. "Rear property line" means the line delineated on the deed or map describing such home or real property and designating the furthest eastern or western point from Enfield Street. [Town website- district ordinance]

Features:

Buildings, Open spaces, Others - Monument

Use:

Residential, Commercial, Religious, Museum

Architectural Style:

Five-bay Georgian (23), 19th century farmhouse vernacular (13), Greek Revival (17), Italianate (6), Second Empire (1), Queen Anne (4), Early 20th century vernacular (11), Spanish Colonial Revival (1), Cape Cod Cottage (13), 20th century suburban (11), Ranch (8). [NR]

Era:
!8th Century, 19th Century, 20th Century
Sources:

[1] District information retrieved from the town website http://www.enfield-ct.gov/.
[2] The Historic District ordinance accessed in the website - http://library.municode.com/index.aspx?clientID=10696&stateID=7&statename=Connecticut.
[3] Assessors information and GIS info retrieved from http://gis.cdm.com/enfieldct/.
[NR] Ransom F. David, Enfield Historic District, National Register Nomination Number- 79002664 NRIS, National Park Service, 1979 - http://pdfhost.focus.nps.gov/docs/NRHP/Text/79002664.pdf; http://pdfhost.focus.nps.gov/docs/NRHP/Photos/79002664.pdf.

Notes:

Unlike the National Register historic district, the local historic district does not include the highway right of way, but consists of two strips of land on either side of it.

Links:
Map:

Map of the historic district from the newspaper clipping, SHPO library, Hartford.

View PDF
Disclaimer:

The street addresses of the designated properties have been obtained from the National Register nomination form, NRIS 79002664. The Enfield local historic district includes all the properties also included in the National Register historic district, minus the highway right of way. For further information, the user is urged to contact the respective Historic District Commission.

Date of Compilation:
11/30/11
Compiler:
Manjusha Patnaik, CT Trust for Historic Preservation